Millet Seed Reference Guide
Millet plant species form a unique agronomic group of small seeded grasses that are able to grow well and set seed in the most difficult of terrains. Millets are probably the world's earliest food plants used by humans, and certainly the first cereal grain that was used for domestic purposes. Its use is ancient and was mentioned in the bible as a seed that bread was made from. Evidence of millet cultivation using species such as Panicum mileacium (broomcorn millet) and Setaria italica (Foxtail millet) were found in China and date back to 7000-5000 BCE. Paleoethnobotanists have found evidence of cultivation in the Korean peninsula that dates back to around 3500-2000 BCE. Wild ancestors of millet such as Barnyard grass and panic grass were cultivated in Japan from around 4000BCE and in Europe there is evidence that millet was being consumed at least since the Iron Age.
World millet production stands at around 30 million tonnes annually and for millions of people in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa, Millets along with sorghum are the most important staple foods. Around 90% of this annual figure is utilised in developing countries and only a very tiny fraction is used by developed countries. China, Ethiopia, India, the Niger, Nigeria and the former Soviet Union are estimated to account for about 80 percent of global millet utilization.
Millet is used in many different ways by different cultures: The Hunza's who live in a remote area of the Himalayan foothills use millet as a cereal, and also for making bread and soups. In India it is used to make roti which is a thin, flat cake made from millet flour and is used as the basis for various meals. In Eastern Europe millet is used to make porridge and kasha or even fermented to make a beverage. In Africa its use is diverse and ranges from baby food to bread. Millet was introduced to the U.S.A in 1875 and was grown and consumed by early colonists but eventually was superseded by other crops and fell into relative obscurity. At the present time both in the U.S.A. and other developed countries, it is mainly used as bird and cattle feed. It has only been very recently that millet has made a comeback and is being promoted as a very healthy grain. Its versatility seems endless and more and more uses are being discovered each year. It is proving to be a superior feed for birds, poultry, pigs, cattle, fish and other livestock and now it seems humans as well are benefitting from its virtues.
As a food source it is non-glutinous and non- acid forming, so is soothing and easy to digest. It is considered to be one of the least allergenic grains. It is high in quality protein, contains high fibre, b-complex vitamins and also the vitamins A & E.
The use of millet in commercial gerbil feed has slowly increased in the last couple of years as it is a very nutritious seed. The varieties used in mixes are excellent sources of protein, being comparable to wheat, but the quality of this protein is higher, having a better amino acid profile, and has it as also been previously mentioned, the seed is also a good source of fibre. The fat content of the seed is good, and is composed of approx 80% polyunsaturated fats which are beneficial to your gerbil. Unfortunately through misinformation on many websites and forums, gerbil keepers have been told either to steer clear of the seed or only use it as a treat or an occasional feed as it makes gerbils "high" or it is a stimulant, so if you do feed it to your gerbils only use an inch of the seed (the type that's sold primarily for birds) per gerbil a week. However this isn't really the case and it is an ideal supplement for both pets and breeding pairs of gerbils. Being a small seed it is ideal for weaning gerbils too, as it's easily handled by them, and offers good nutritional values for the growing pup. The variety in question is known as proso millet, or as it's more commonly known amongst bird keepers as Chinese broomcorn millet and is sold in long golden sprays of seed heads, and occasionally you may see it as a red seed variety. The rumours of it being a "bad" seed and a stimulant started many years ago, and like Chinese whispers it has slowly spread across the internet without anyone bothering to check whether it was accurate or not. The truth of the matter is that it is the sprouted seeds or young plants of proso millet that contain quantities of Hordenine in their stems. Hordenine is a phenylethylanine alkaloid, which in higher animals liberates norepinephrine. However several other seeds have the ability to manufacture this potent alkaloid in their growing stems, including Barley, sorghum and wheat, and for this reason these seeds should never be sprouted then offered to your gerbils. When it is used as a seed supplement to any food mixes it is regarded as being very safe, extremely nutritious and a very beneficial addition to your gerbil's diet.
- Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)
- Proso Millet (Panicum miliacium)
- Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica)
- Little millet (Panicum sumatrense)
- Browntop millet (Urochloa ramosa)
- Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp)
- Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum)
- Finger millet (Eleusine coracana
Common names - U.K & Europe: candle millet, dark millet USA: cattail millet, burgundy millet.
Other names - penicillaria, pencilaria, Mand's forage plant, bulrush millet.
Plant Description - Pearl millet can grow anywhere between 4 to 10 feet in a favourable season, with good temperatures and moisture The larger varieties are used for forage and are low in seed yield, but the smaller compact hybrids are high yielding seed wise, and are used for grain production. They have large (up to ¾3 / 4 inch in diameter) solid stems that are often covered in dense hairs and the leaves are long and slender, and can be either smooth or hairy depending on the variety. Leaf colouring is variable and can range from a light yellow green to a deep purple. The flowers and seeds occur in a long spike at the end of the stems and are reminiscent of a cat tail or bulrush.
The plant itself does well in many soil types and conditions, and its adaptability reflects its origins in the Sahel region of Africa, where growing conditions are difficult. Its root system development is fast and extensive, both laterally and downwards and it makes maximum use of moisture and nutrients available.
Seed Description - The seeds of pearl millet are much larger than any other seeds of hulled millets available. Seeds are pointed at one end, rounded at the other and primarily light gold coloured with a blue or grayish tinge to them. The seed by weight is about half that of a Sorghum seed.
Uses - Pearl millet is recognized as being the most widely grown of all the millet types. Its origins go back to tropical Africa in prehistoric times, and it was later introduced to India. Because of its high adaptability to any growing conditions, it can be grown in areas where cereal crops such as wheat or maize, simply couldn't survive. Pearl millet is the basic staple food in the poorest countries and used by the poorest people. For human consumption it can be used in a variety of ways including both leavened and unleavened breads, in porridges, and can also be boiled or steamed. It is also used as an ingredient in alcoholic drinks. Apart from grain, its stems are used as building materials and as a fuel.
In areas such as Europe, U.S.A., Canada, Brazil, and Australia it is grown mainly as a cover crop or for grain and forage. Its primary uses are feeds for horses, goats, pigs, cattle, game birds and other livestock, but especially so in dairy and cow-calf production. It is also widely used in poultry farming and egg production. More recently it has found its way into the pet market, and the most profitable current market is when it's used as an ingredient in wild bird seed mixes, and it has been repeatedly noticed that songbirds such as gold finches and juncos will readily eat the seed. The seed can even be found in some dog food products.
Nutrition - Nutritionally pearl millet is regarded as a good feed grain. In different pearl millet genotypes the starch content of the grain varied from 62.8 to 70.5 percent, soluble sugar from 1.2 to 2.6 percent and amylose from 21.9 to 28.8 percent. Studies on the grain have found it comparable to maize in terms of metabolisable energy for non-ruminant animals. Pearl millet, like sorghum, is generally 9 to 13 percent protein, but large variations in protein content, from 6 to 21 percent, have been observed. When compared to maize by weight however, pearl millet can be 8%-60% higher in crude protein, 40% richer in the amino acids Lysine and methionine, has good levels of Cystine, and is 30% richer in threonine. It is regarded as having the highest scores of all the millets when comparing essential amino acids. The essential amino acid profile shows more Iysine, threonine, methionine and cystine in pearl millet protein than in proteins of sorghum and other millets. Its tryptophan content is also higher. The grain is also gluten-free. The total fat content of pearl millet is higher than all of the other millets. It is quite high in polyunsaturated fats, and linolenic acid comprises approx 4% of the fatty acids present. When the grain is used to feed layer hens, it has been noted that the eggs produced have a much higher concentration of the healthier omega-3 fatty acids. Higher protein and other favourable feed characteristics have helped promote pearl millet, and it's used by poultry farmers and other livestock producers. There are several studies available on its potential for several types of animals including poultry, ducks, cows, pigs and even catfish. Generally its performance is comparable to corn, but in certain situations it shows a distinct advantage. There are wide fluctuations in the total mineral and trace elements contained in pearl millet, the biggest factor determining this is the nature of the soil it is grown in. In various studies it has been found to be low in zinc, iron and manganese when compared to sorghum grain. When fed to rats supplemented with calcium carbonate in the diet they continued to grow well after seven weeks of feeding, while those fed just pearl millet ceased to grow after four weeks. From the study it was concluded that calcium was more limiting than lysine or other nutrients in pearl millet when fed to growing rats.
Anti-nutritional factors - When pearl millet is compared to other crops it has fewer anti-nutritional factors. Tannin content is low in the grain which makes the seeds very palatable to animals, and high tannin contents which are found in other grains like rye and sorghum have a tendency to inhibit protein digestion. Heat treatment to destroy protease inhibitors or other harmful factors in the seed is also unnecessary. In the U.S.A. aflatotoxins such as aspergillus sp. are not known to cause problems in pearl millet, and the crop appears to be immune to Aspergillus flavus infestations. It is however susceptible to other carcinogenic mycotoxins and Fusarium fungus can be a problem when harvests are delayed, however under normal conditions levels of Fusarium toxins remain extremely low, Pearl millet grows very well using organic methods and there is little need to use herbicides on the plant. There is in fact only a few herbicides labeled for pearl millet when compared to other millets grown, and these tend to be used to combat emerging weeds prior to pearl millet being planted, as seedlings can be slow growing. Fungicides are also not recommended for Pearl millet. These qualities make pearl millet very attractive for the organic livestock feed market.
Pearl millet when used as forage can have many uses, and can be cut for hay, haylage, green-chop or pasture. It is valued for its high protein content but also because unlike a many other products used for grazing or hay, it is free of Prussic Acid. Pearl millet however has to be tested for nitrates before grazing is allowed as it is a notorious nitrate accumulator.
In countries where it is consumed in large quantities as the SOLE staple food , it has been implicated with a high incidence of goiter in the population. Studies on rats fed high pearl millet diets also developed abnormal thyroid hormone patterns with hyperplasia. The substance found to cause this in pearl millet is known as Vitexin, 8-gycosylapeginin, and it inhibits thyroid perodixidase activity. However to put this into perpective, this will only cause problems if very high quantities of the seed are consumed. Millet is not alone in possessing this characteristic. Commonly eaten foods that also contain these goiterogenic substances include brussel sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, mustard greens, spinach, turnips, rutabagas, cassava, soy beans, peanuts, peaches, and pears.
Pearl millet is also known to contain saponin anti-metabolites at levels upto 200ppm. Saponins are found in many plants in their leaves, seeds, stems, roots, bulbs, blossoms or fruit. Saponins have the ability to dissolve in water to form a soapy froth. Saponins are known to be toxic to all cold blooded mammals, due to their ability to lower surface tension, but in humans saponins are believed useful in the diet as they have the ability to reduce cholesterol, however some plant species such as the soapberry that contain saponins are poisonous if swallowed and can cause urticaria ( a type of skin rash) in many people. Some caution is recommended when feeding to fish that are sensitive to saponins.
Pearl millet for gerbils - Although "millet" is occasionally appearing in the list of manufacturer's ingredients in gerbil foods, currently no manufacturer to my knowledge uses pearl millet in their products. It is a high protein product with a good amino acid profile and is superior to other millets in this respect. It is also superior to maize in many circumstances. When included in feeds it drastically reduces the need for protein and amino acid supplementation. For breeding gerbils, and also if you need to increase the protein content of the food for other reasons, this seed could be considered, and added in small amounts to their staple feed. It can often be purchased in health food outlets, but especially so in ethnic food markets, particularly to those catering for African or Indian foods where pearl millet is a traditional food.
Common names - common millet, broom corn millet, white millet, yellow hog millet, Hershey, prove millet, panic millet, brown corn, French millet.
Plant description - Panicum species form one of the largest genera of grasses which include more than 400 species. Within this genus, two species are of economic importance, these are proso millet, (Panicum miliacium) and little millet (Panicum sumatrense ) Proso millet is an annual grass, but isn't closely related to other millets such as pearl, foxtail, finger or the barnyard millets. Weedy forms of proso grain are found in central Asia, covering a wide area from the Caspian Sea east to Xinjiang and Mongolia (both are areas of the Mongolian gerbils native habitat) It is adaptive to many soils and climates, including plateau conditions and high elevations and is found high in the mountains in the former U.S.S.R. up to 1200M and in India up to 3500 M. It also has the ability to grow further north than other millets.
It is a short season crop and because of its small root system has a low water requirement. The plant itself can reach heights of 100cm (4 foot) Proso stems and leaves are covered in small hairs, and the leaves themselves may be up to 30cm long. The stems are stout and erect, and are terminated in a long drooping flowering panicle which can be up to 45cm long. The seed heads grow in bunches. There are three variety classes, based on the shape of the panicle: (1) spreading, (2) loose and one-sided, and (3) erect. Although proso is considered a self pollinating crop, natural cross pollination still occurs and may exceed 10%
Seed description - The seeds are very small and oval in shape. They are approx 3mm long and 2mm wide. Seed colour is wide ranging and can be white, cream, yellow, orange, red, and black through to brown.
Uses - Proso millet is the primary millet in the world import and export market. It is used for human consumption in many parts of the world, and is a significant food source for millions of people. In Europe and the U.S.A. it is used primarily as a bird and livestock feed. When used as birdseed it is cleaned and processed and becomes a major component of seed mixes for parakeets, canaries, finches, lovebirds, cockatiels and wild birds, here the use of large, bright and often red seed varieties are preferred. When used in poultry feeds the whole seed can be fed to poultry. The protein values compare favorably with sorghum and wheat and are higher than corn. Proso also has considerably higher fiber levels, due to attached hulls. In turkey diets they become increasingly heavier when fed proso than when fed on either sorghum or corn diets, however these weight gains aren't noticed in broiler chicken diets, although it is stated that proso millet, either ground or whole, is an excellent ingredient for layer diets. When used as a feed for livestock some pressing is necessary to crack the hard seed coat to allow for better digestion. Proso is considered to be equal to oats and barley in feeding value. It is commonly fed in ground form to cattle, sheep, and pigs. Proso performs best in livestock rations when fed in mixtures with other grains. The feed value of proso millet for cattle and swine is generally considered to equal that of grain sorghum or milo and maize when less than 50% of the maize in the ration is replaced. If the amino acid levels are balanced, the feeding value to pigs is nearly equal to corn.
Proso millet has also found a niche in the health food market due to its lack of gluten and can be included in the diets of people who cannot tolerate wheat.
Nutrition - When evaluating protein content in proso, it differs widely from variety to variety, and can also fluctuate in quality due to environmental factors (soil quality, water availability, weather, etc) Content values lie within the ranges of 11.3 to 12.7 percent of dry matter content. Although the protein content is similar to wheat, it is significantly higher in the essential amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and methionine, so protein quality is generally regarded as higher than wheat. It also is high in the essential amino acid, valine. It is however low in the amino acids lysine, threonine, arginine, glysine and also tryptophan content is marginal. Unlike pearl millet, it is absent in the essential amino acids, cystine and tyrosine
The fatty acid content of proso millet is similar to that of Sorghum and contains between 1.8 to 3.9 % lipids. About 24% of the total grain fat is in the embryo component of the seed. It is particularly good in unsaturated fatty acids, being around 78-82% the rest being in the form of saturated fats. The unrefined fats content extracted from millet contains approx. 8.3 to 10.5mg of vitamin A and around 87 to 96mg of vitamin E per 100g. However on refining all the vitamin A is lost accompanied by a significant loss of vitamin E. The grain itself is gluten free.
The starch content of Proso millet has been found to be more digestible than maize starch, and the total mineral content was higher than in most commonly consumed cereal grains including sorghum, however it has been found that processing the seed such as de-hulling results in considerable nutrient losses.
Anti-Nutritional factors - The red seed varieties of proso millet tend to have smaller seeds and are considerably higher in tannins, which makes them less acceptable as a feed. Bird seed manufacturers tend to use small amounts of this seed in mixtures to approve eye appeal of the final product. Tannin however is objectionable for two reasons, it competes for available protein and carbohydrates and also has a bitter taste. In rat, chicks and livestock studies it has been shown that high tannins in the diet adversely affect digestability of proteins and carbohydrates, so reduce growth and feeding efficiency. This plant and many other Panicum species contain diosgenin which is a saponin that has been known to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in animals throughout the world. Other problems when grazing the plants are also known as it is a nitrate accumulator.
The seeds should never be offered sprouted as the the growing shoots contain amounts of hordenine which is a phenylethylamine alkaloid. Hordenine is an indirectly acting adrenergic drug. It liberates norepinephrine in higher animals. Experiments in animals (rats, dogs, horses, mice) show that hordenine has a positive inotropic effect (increasing the heart's beating strength) upon the heart, increases systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow volume, inhibits gut movements but has no effect upon the psychomotorical behaviour of mice. Although its effects are only short lasting it could seriously disorientate the affected animal.
Proso Millet for Gerbils - This is the common millet often seen in sprays for sale in the bird section of many pet shop outlets, and is occasionally found in manufacturer's food mixes for gerbils. It possesses good amounts of protein and the majority of fats contained in it are polyunsaturated, so beneficial and essential for correct body functions. Being a small seed it is ideal when supplementing the diet of gerbil pups. Never offer the seed sprouted for the reasons mentioned above.
Common names - Italian millet, German millet, Chinese millet, and Hungarian millet. Dwarf setaria, giant setaria, liberty millet, red rala. Siberian millet.
Plant description - This is an annual grass and varies in height from 1 to 1.5 metres. It has slim, vertical and leafy stems. The seedheads are dense, and form hairy panicles up to a foot in length.
Seed description - The seeds are small and are around 2mm in diameter. They are encased in a thin, papery hull which becomes easily removed upon threshing. Seed colour can vary greatly between varieties grown and range from a pale yellow, through to orange, red, brown and black. A thousand of these seeds weighs approx. 2grams.
Uses - The plant is considered to be one of the oldest of cultivated crops, and was used throughout India, China, Egypt and Japan. It is believed to have been one of the five sacred plants of ancient China (from 2700B.C.) Because of its very short growth season it was an ideal crop for nomads, and probably found its way to Europe this way during the Stone Age. It is used in Eastern Europe for porridge, bread and for making alcoholic beverages. Around 85% of the grain is used as food grain for humans and around 6% for poultry. In the U.S.A. it is grown chiefly for hay, silage or as a short season emergency hay crop.
Nutrition - The protein in Foxtail millet is known to be deficient in Lysine, and its amino acid scores are comparable to that of Maize. It was also observed that in different grain varieties, the higher the protein content, the lower the content of Lysine in the protein. It is relatively high in leucine and methionine. The starch in some foxtail millet varieties were shown to be 100% amylopectin, and the starches contained in foxtail, provo and barnyard millets are known to be more digestible than maize starch.
The total ash content of foxtail millet is good and is much higher than the more commonly consumed cereal grains including sorghum, however de-hulling of the grain, like in other millets, causes considerable nutrient losses.
Anti-Nutrition Factors - All cultivars of setaria contain oxalates, in some varieties it is much higher than others. In many animal species high oxalate levels can cause a range of problems. However it has been observed that many plants that the gerbil consumes in the wild have high oxalate levels, so it may also be the case that the gerbil has a high resistance to oxalates. Foxtail millet has been reported to have a diuretic effect in horses that may lead to kidney and joint problems although no reports to actually document this have been found. When severely stressed during growth, foxtail millet can accumulate high nitrate levels which are toxic to livestock when grazing it.
Foxtail Millet for Gerbils - The wild ancestor to foxtail millet is the bristlegrass Setaria viridis, and this plant forms part of the gerbils native staple diet. If you can get hold of this seed it is eaten with great relish. It has a much lower fat content than most other millets so can safely be used in reasonable quantity in their diets. Its mineral content is also very good.
Other Millets - There exists several other minor "millets" such as Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), little millet (Panicum sumatrense), Guinea millet (Urochloa deflexa), Browntop millet (Urochloa ramosa), and Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp)
Is a relative of Proso millet and is grown throughout India but is of little importance elsewhere and has received very little attention from plant breeders as a crop source. The plant varies in size between 30-90cm and its oblong panicles range between14 to 40 cm long. The seeds of little millet are much smaller than proso millet. It has reasonably good levels of protein, but very poor amino acid values. It also has the highest fat content of all the millets.
Browntop millet is another native of India but was introduced to the U.S.A. in 1915. It is grown in the south eastern states mainly for hay and pasture, and often for bird and quail feed plantings on game preserves. It is also sold to Minnesota sportsmen for this purpose as well. It has a short growing season and finer stems that allow for easier curing for hay production. Seed and forage yields of this plant are low in tests and it has been found that it doesn't compete well with weeds.
Barnyard or Japanese millet is a domesticated relative of barnyard grass and there exists several varieties. It is the fastest growing of all the millets and produces a crop in six weeks. In Australia, Japan and other Asian countries the crop is grown for grain. In India, Japan and China it is often used as a substitute for rice when the paddy crop fails In the U.S.A. it is grown primarily for forage, and can produce up to eight harvests a year. It is comparable to proso millet in protein and fat content, but the actual quality of the protein, like that of little millet have the poorest amino acid values of all the millets. It is very high in fibre.
This is a minor grain crop in India but is of much greater importance in the Deccan Plateau. It is an annual grass species that grows to around 90cm high. Some varieties of Kodo millet are prone to attacks from mycotoxins. The grain itself varies in colour from light red to dark grey and is enclosed in a tough husk that is difficult to remove. It has high protein content, being around 11% and the nutritional value of the protein is regarded as being slightly better than that of foxtail millet, but comparable to the other millets. It is however deficient in the amino acid tryptophan. It is also reasonably low in fats. Its fibre content is also very high. It has been recently shown in studies on diabetic rats that both Kodo millet and finger millet which are high in antioxidants have a very beneficial effect in protecting against oxidative stress and maintaining glucose levels in type 2 diabetes.
Finger millet is also known as African millet, and is an important staple food in both Eastern and Central Africa and also India. The grains are also malted for making beer. One of its greatest qualities is that it can be stored for exceptionally long periods without any insect damage occurring, and so is extremely important in times of famine. There are several known cultivars and in both India and Africa, and two important groups are recognized: African highland types which have their grains enclosed in the florets and Afro-Asiatic types with mature grains being exposed outside the florets. It is thought that the plants origins were Uganda and neighbouring regions and it was introduced to India approximately 3,000 years ago, and reached Europe at about the commencement of the Christian era. Its utilization however is restricted mostly to Eastern Africa and India.
Cultivars range from 40cm up to a metre and the floret spike ranges from around 3 to 13cm. The grain colour is variable and seed colour ranges from white, orange to deep red, brown, purple and black. Grain size is smaller than pearl millet, and 1000 seeds way approx 2.6g
Finger millet is lower in protein than other millets and poor when compared to other cereals. Tannin content of many varieties is also high which affects the absorption of the available protein. It has an extremely high calcium and manganese content, but other minerals and trace elements are comparable to that of sorghum. The availability of iron in the seed is drastically lowered by its high tannin content. Fibre content is high. Finger millet, like foxtail and Kodo millet, contain less fat in the kernel than other millets.
Nutrient composition of millets and other cereals (per 100 g edible portion; 12 percent moisture)
Sources: Hulse. Laing and Pearson. 1980: United States National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. 1982. USDA/HNIS. 1984.
Mineral composition of sorghum and millets (mg %) Expressed on a dry-weight basis
Sources: Sankara Rao and Deosthale. 1983 (pearl and finger millets), unpublished ( other millets).
Essential amino acid composition (mg/g) and chemical score of millet proteins
Sources: FAO. 1970a; Indira and Naik. 1971
Article by Eddie Cope
Sorghum & millets in human nutrition -FAO corporate document repository.
Pearl millet for grain- Cooperative Extension Service- The University of Georgia-College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Alkaloids and Plant Metabolism -IV. THE TYRAMINE METHYLPHERASE OF BARLEY ROOTS* JAY D. MANN AND S. HARVEY MUDD From the Laboratory of Cellular Pharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bethesda 14, Maryland
Feeding and care of the horse - Lon D. Lewis
Foxtail and Proso Millet- David D. Baltensperger
Millet Production- R.D.Baker - Extension Agronomist.
Pearl Millet- pics 1-3 -courtesy of the USDA-ARS
Foxtail Millet - pic 1-Mark Nesbitt and Delwen Samuel pic 2- Kurt Stueber Pic 3 - R.A. Howard. ©Smithsonian Institution Pic 4 -Steve Hurst
Proso Millet - pic 1- Kurt Steuber Pic 4 - Steve Hurst
BristleGrass - Pic 1&2- Dan Tenaglia Pic 3 - Olog Korsun
Finger Millet - Pic 1 - J. Wilson, USDA-ARS Pics 2&3 Jose Hernandez
Kodo Millet - Pic 1- Steve Hurst
Browntop Millet - Steve Hurst
Barnyard Millet - Pic 1 - Robert H. Mohlenbrock Pics 2 & 3 - Jose Hernandez